Coffee Roasts


When raw green coffee is “Roasted” it is essentially cooked and takes on the characteristics of a roasted food type. It is usually roasted at different temperatures and time durations to achieve a particular roast level which is suited to its original flavour characteristics. Coffee beans skilfully roasted highlight and enhance the signature flavour characteristics of the bean. As the roast level increases the bean colour darkens and the original flavour characteristics start to become dominated by flavours induced but the roasting process. A good coffee roaster will try many different roast levels, sample a brew from each one before deciding which brings out the best flavour from the bean.


Coffee bean roasting stages

Yellow – The beans turn slowly from green to yellow in the first few minutes of roasting.

Steam – The beans start to steam off their water content.

First crack – The bean has lost most of its moisture content and the oils are now released. An audible crack is heard, caramelization and the real roasting has begun.

First stage roast – City roast just after first crack. The roast can be finished anytime now depending on personal preference.

Caramelization – The beans expand as the oils help the colouring process, heading towards the second crack.

Second Crack – A second crack can be heard. The roast characteristics start to dominate the original flavour charachteristics as the bean turns darker and darker.

Dark/French roast – The sugars start to burn, the smoke thickens and the oils come to the surface as the bean structure begins to break down.


coffee bean roasting stages







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